So far， Irving ______(live) in New York City for ten years. has lived
Many a writer of newspaper articles_______(trun) to writing novels during the past decade. has turned
Some people think relations between people _______(deteriorate) so much that understanding and friendship are almost impossible . have deteriorated
Nearly a week passed before the girl was able to explain what _______(happen) to her.
In the past two decades， research _____(expand) our knowledge about sleep and dreams . has expanded
The nations that _______actively ________(involve) in earthquake prediction programs include Japan， Russia， and the United States. are involved
There __________(estimate) to be more than 20，000 overseas domestic servants working in Brtain in 1995. were estimated
If you had come earlier， you ______ (not miss) the first act of the play.
would not have missed
If it hadn‘t been for your help， we _____(be) in real trouble.
would have been
B.在表示建议、命令、要求以及表示“重要性”和“紧迫性”等含义的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中，谓语动词常用虚拟语气，由“动词原形”或“should + 动词原形”构成。 should 常常省略
I would recommend that you _______(think) about doing something similar for yourself. (should) think
It was imperative that students ______(finish) their papers before July 1st.
C.动词wish 、would rather (sooner)、if only、as if 后的虚拟语气。
I would rather he _____(buy) the house next year.
bought ( 表示从句中动作尚未发生)
She treats me as if I ______ (be) a stranger. were
The manager told us to be friendly to the visitors as if we _____( meet) them before.
If only we ______(have) a phone! I‘m tired of waiting outside the public phone box.
D.in case ， for fear that ， lest 等词后从句的谓语动词为(should) + 原形。
He took his umbrella with him lest it _______ (rain.)
E.在It is (high) time that 从句中谓语动词一般用过去时动词。
It‘s high time that we _______(take) firm measures to protect our environment. took
If we had set out earlier，we wouldn‘t be walking in the rain.
不定式作定语：If there is no choice， there is no decision ______(make) to be made
不定式作宾语： Robots ， already taking over human tasks in the automotive field， are beginning ________(see) . to be seen
不定式作宾补 I notice him _______( leave ) the classroom. leave (可省略to)
不定式作主补：They were often compelled ______(work) twelve or fourteen hours a day.
to work( 不可省略to)
We make them (to) work day and night. 不定式作宾语补语，在有些动词后可以省略TO
They are made to work day and night. 不定式作主语补语时，不可省略TO
分词作定语：Anyone ______(want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics. wanting
As research techniques become more advanced， the number of animals _____(use) in experiments may decrease. used
分词作状语： When ______(present) with a common case， sales managers tend to see sales problems and production managers see production problems. presented
________ (tell) that some guests were coming ， she shopped all morning in the supermarket. Having been told
Her body， with hands and feet _______(bind) ， was discovered by a traveler early in the morning. bound
分词做宾补： They may have their passports ______(remove) ， making leaving or “escaping” actually impossible. removed
动名词作宾语：If you cannot understand ， ask： “ Would you mind ______(rephrase) the question ， please ?” rephrasing
If we don‘t start out now， we must risk ______(miss) the train.
The more time you waste， the _____(easy) it is to continue wasting time.easier
As Jane was the _____(old) ， she looked after the other children in the family. eldest
The explorers were puzzled over what to do next because they were in a _____(trick)situation .
These electric appliances are all similar in construction but each one is _____(specialize) in its function.
specialize 是动词，应把它变为形容词 specific或 special