自考《英语（二）》课程讲义--Text A Work, Labor, and Play
Text A Work, Labor, and Play
Paras.1-3 the essential difference among work, labor and play
Paras.4-5 the reason why percentage of workers is smaller than that of laborers
1.compel vt. 强迫(to)
be compelled to 被强迫
用法：compel sb. to do sth. 强迫某人做某事，令某人不得不做某事
The rain compelled us to stay indoors. 下雨使我们不得不待在家里。
They were often compelled to work twelve or fourteen hours a day.
2 rightly ad. 公正地，正当地；
3.laborer n. 劳动者；工人
4.antithesis n. 对偶，（修辞学）对句；对立面
5.voluntary a. 自愿的，志愿的；自发的
派生词：volunteer n. 志愿者，自愿者
Is it voluntary, or do we have to go? 这是自愿的，还是我们必须去？
He has just finished his voluntary services overseas. 他刚完成海外志愿工作。
6.undertake vt. 着手做，进行；承担，从事
He undertook the responsibility for reform. 他负责改革工作。
He undertook to improve the working conditions. 他承诺改善工作。
He reluctantly undertook the work. 他不情愿地从事这项工作。
7.coincide vi. 一致，相符（with）
Our interests coincide. 我们的利害（关系）一致。
His comments coincided with a survey this week. 他的意见与本周的一项调查结果一致。
A man's appearance doesn't often coincide with his moral quality.
8.manual a./n. 手的，用手（操作）的；体力的
9.cobbler n. 补鞋匠
10.clerk n. 办事员，公务员；店员
11.efficiently ad. 效率高地，有能力地
This adult education program can also help eliminate poverty in this area.
Eliminate the exploitation of men by men. 消灭人剥削人的现象。
All the mistakes should be eliminated from his article. 所有的错误都应从这篇文章里清除掉。
13.compulsion n. 强制，强迫
14.division n. 分开，分割；分工；部门
15.eliminate vt. 排除，消灭
get rid of
16.formerly ad. 以前，从前
17.enjoyable a. 愉快的，快乐的；有趣的
enjoy doing sth
18.boring a. 令人厌烦的
19.aristocracy n. 贵族统治；贵族
20.ritualize vt./vi. （行为模式）仪式化
-ise -ize 动词词尾
21.grouse n. 松鸡
22.unchanging a. 不变的
23.aristocratic a. 贵族的；贵族式的
24.amusement n. 娱乐，消遣
25.gamble vi./vt./n. 赌博，打赌；投机，冒险
26.duel n./vi. 决斗；（双方的）斗争
27.warfare n. 战争，作战，
28.aptly ad. 恰当地，贴切地；灵巧地
29.phrase n. 短语，词语；习惯用语
1.so far as …knows 就某人所知
so far as somebody/someone knows
He isn't coming today, so far as I know. 据我所知，他今天不会来。
So far as I know, he won't be back until next month. 据我所知，他等到下个月才能回来。
This work is of great importance / value / interest = This work is very important/valuable / interesting. 这项工作很重要/很有价值/很有趣。
Information is of great value to him. 信息对他有很大价值。
Many people still believe that women's career are secondary important/are of secondary importance.
4.in the strict sense 在严格的意义上
They are not immigrants, at least not in the strict sense. 从严格意义上来说他们不是移民。
6.to coincide with 相符，一致
7.attitude towards 对…的态度；意见
What is your attitude to/towards this idea? 你对这个想法的态度如何？
8.at a guess 凭猜测
9.to go in for 参加，从事；以…为兴趣，爱好
What sports do you go in for? 你喜欢什么运动？
He goes in for pop music. 他喜欢流行音乐。
The boy goes in for stamp collecting. 这个男孩喜欢集邮。
10.to get one's teeth into 死死咬住，紧紧抓住；认真对待
Work, Labor, and Play
So far as I know, Miss Hannah Arendt was the first person to define the essential difference between work and labor. To be happy, a man must feel, firstly, free and, secondly, important. He cannot be really happy if he is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing, or if what he enjoys doing is ignored by society as of no value or importance.（1）In a society where slavery in the strict sense has been abolished, the sign that what a man does is of social value is that he is paid money to do it, but a laborer today can rightly be called a wage slave.（2）A man is a laborer if the job society offers him is of no interest to himself but he is compelled to take it by the necessity of earning a living and supporting his family.（3）
1.本句中，as of no value or importance 在if 从句中作主语补足语, as 在这里是介词，解释为"作为…""be ignored by society as …"被社会作为毫无价值或无关紧要的东西而忽视。
句中有两个what 引导的从句，第一个是宾语从句作do 的宾语，第二个是主语从句，谓语是is ignored。
2.句子的基本部分是：In a society… the sign… is that he is paid money to do it, but …；where slavery …abolished 是定语从句修饰society；that what a man does is of social value 是the sign的同位语从句，其中又套有一个主语从句what a man does；that he is paid money to do it是表语从句；but 引导的是一个并列句。
3.本句中society offers him 是省去了连接词that 的定语从句，
修饰the job；by the necessity of doing sth.由于干某事的必要性。
The antithesis to labor is play. When we play a game, we enjoy what we are doing, otherwise we should not play it, but it is a purely private activity; society could not care less whether we play it or not.
could not careless＝as little as possible
You can't be more careless.你太不细心了。
Between labor and play stands work.（4）A man is a worker if he is personally interested in the job which society pays him to do; what from the point of view of society is necessary labor is from his own point of view voluntary play.（5）Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work depends, not on the job itself, but on the tastes of the individual who undertakes it.（6）The difference does not, for example, coincide with the difference between a manual and a mental job; a gardener or a cobbler may be a worker, a bank clerk a laborer. Which a man is can be seen from his attitude toward leisure. To a worker, leisure means simply the hours he needs to relax and rest in order to work efficiently. He is therefore more likely to take too little leisure than too much;（7） workers die of coronaries and forget their wives' birthdays. To the laborer, on the other hand, leisure means freedom from compulsion, so that it is natural for him to imagine that the fewer hours he has to spend laboring, and the more hours he is free to play, the better.（8）
4.Between labor and play stands work. 介于劳作和娱乐之间的是工作。
这是一个全部倒装句，因为前两段分别介绍了labor 和 play ，下一段将介绍 work, 所以将labor and play 提前，起到承上启下的修饰效果。
5.what 引导的是主语从句，两个from the point of view 皆为状语。谓语动词是第二个is 。表语是voluntary.
6.Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work 是主语从句，注意其中谓语is to be 表示"应该"。depends, not on … but on … "不取决于…而取决于…"
His vocation coincides with his avocation. 他的职业正好和他的业余爱好一致。
to a worker
to the laborer
7.He is therefore more likely to take too little leisure than too much; 这是对同一个人不同方面的比较。译为："因此他的休闲时间可能太少而不是太多。"
8.die of 死于……
die of 死于自然原因
die from 死于非自然原因
so that在句中引导结果状语从句。"the fewer… the more … the better "是一个比较结构，表示"越…就越…"。The better 后面省略了it is .
What percentage of the population in a modern technological society are, like myself, in the fortunate position of being workers?（9）At a guess 1 would say sixteen per cent, and I do not think that figure is likely to get bigger in the future.
9.percentage 作单数还是复数取决于它所代表的名词是可数的还是不可数的。一般说来population 作"人口"解时，是总称，为集合名词，一般作不可数名词用，但这里由于percentage 与后面的workers 有直接呼应关系，从意义一致的角度看，谓语动词用了are而没有从语法一致的角度用is。
Technology and the division of labor have done two things; by eliminating in many fields the need for special strength or skill, they have made a very large number of paid occupations which formerly were enjoyable work into boring labor, and by increasing productivity they have reduced the number of necessary laboring hours.（10）It is already possible to imagine a society in which the majority of the population, that is to say, its laborers, will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy. （11）When one recalls how aristocracies in the past actually behaved, the prospect is not cheerful. Indeed, the problem of dealing with boredom may be even more difficult for such a future mass society than it was for aristocracies.（12）The latter, for example, ritualized their time; there was a season to shoot grouse, a season to spend in town, etc. The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which it will be in the economic interest of certain people to change as often as possible（13）Again, the masses cannot go in for hunting, for very soon there would be no animals left to hunt. For other aristocratic amusements like gambling, dueling, and warfare, it may be only too easy to find equivalents in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence.（14）Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression into their work, be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist.（15）The role of aggression in mental work is aptly expressed by the phrase "getting one's teeth into a problem."
10.句中冒号后面的句子用来解释前面的句子，它的主要结构为：by…，they have made …occupations…into …labor， and by…they have reduced the number…。在第一个by 介词短语中， in many fields 是动名词eliminating 的状语，原应在skill之后，但因宾语部分太长，所以被提到前面，插在了动词eliminating 和它的宾语the need之间。"which formerly were enjoyable work为定语从句，修饰occupations。
11.句中in which 直至句尾为定语从句，修饰society。定语从句中又包含有一个状语从句as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy , 其中第二个as 引导的是带被动语态的比较状语从句。注意leisure 为状语从句的主语，所以不能再另加主语。
12.mass society 意为"大众社会"
13.which 引导的定语从句修饰fashion，从句中it 是形式主语，真正主语是后面的不定式to change。"change"的宾语是which ,即fashion。
14.only too easy to do sth. "非常容易做某事"
too… to … 一般作“太…以致不能…”讲， 但是加上only, but, all 等词后则为"非常…做某事"。例如：我非常愿意和你一起工作。 I'm only too pleased to work with you.
He was only too glad to help you.
He was too busy to help you.
15.be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist 为虚拟式让步状语从句，等价于：whether it is physical like the work of a smith, or it is mental like the work of a scientist or an artist.