自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Work, Labor, and Play

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月09日

Text A Work, Labor, and Play

 

课文简介
  本文主要介绍了工作与劳作之间的差别。能给人以报酬,同时又能带来快乐的便是工作,如果某人从所从事的工作中得到享受,他就是个工作者,如果他被迫做此事来谋生,那么他就是个劳作者。劳作者通常希望有更多的空闲来娱乐,而对工作者来说,工作本身就是娱乐。文章还分析了为什么工作者所占比例只有16%
  Paras.1-3 the essential difference among work, labor and play
  
Paras.4-5 the reason why percentage of workers is smaller than that of laborers

  
New Words
  1.compel vt. 强迫
(to)
  be compelled to 被强迫

  用法:compel sb. to do sth. 强迫某人做某事,令某人不得不做某事
  The rain compelled us to stay indoors. 下雨使我们不得不待在家里。
  They were often compelled to work twelve or fourteen hours a day.
  他们常常不得不每天工作1214个小时。

  2 rightly ad. 公正地,正当地;
  right
  a.正确的,对的,右边的
  n. 权利
  3.laborer n. 劳动者;工人
  4.antithesis n. 对偶,(修辞学)对句;对立面
  oppositeness
  antithesis的同义词
oppositeness
  5.voluntary a. 自愿的,志愿的;自发的

  派生词:volunteer n. 志愿者,自愿者
  Is it voluntary, or do we have to go? 这是自愿的,还是我们必须去?
  He has just finished his voluntary services overseas. 他刚完成海外志愿工作。
  6.undertake vt. 着手做,进行;承担,从事
  He undertook the responsibility for reform. 他负责改革工作。
  He undertook to improve the working conditions. 他承诺改善工作。
  He reluctantly undertook the work. 他不情愿地从事这项工作。
  7.coincide vi. 一致,相符(with
  Our interests coincide. 我们的利害(关系)一致。
  His comments coincided with a survey this week. 他的意见与本周的一项调查结果一致。
  A man's appearance doesn't often coincide with his moral quality.
  一个人的外貌和他的品质常常不一致。

  8.manual a./n. 手的,用手(操作)的;体力的
  9.cobbler n. 补鞋匠
  10.clerk n. 办事员,公务员;店员
  11.efficiently ad. 效率高地,有能力地

  inefficient
  
inefficiency
  
This adult education program can also help eliminate poverty in this area.
  这项成人教育计划也有助于在这个地区消除贫困。

  Eliminate the exploitation of men by men. 消灭人剥削人的现象。
  All the mistakes should be eliminated from his article. 所有的错误都应从这篇文章里清除掉。
  12.coronary a./n.冠的,冠状的;冠状动脉
  13.compulsion n. 强制,强迫
  compel
  14.division n. 分开,分割;分工;部门

  divide
  15.eliminate vt. 排除,消灭

  get rid of
  16.formerly ad. 以前,从前

  17.enjoyable a. 愉快的,快乐的;有趣的
  enjoy doing sth
  18.boring a. 令人厌烦的

  boring a.
  
bore v.
  
boredom n.
  19.aristocracy n. 贵族统治;贵族

  20.ritualize vt./vi. (行为模式)仪式化
  -ise -ize 动词词尾
  ritual
  21.grouse n. 松鸡

  22.unchanging a. 不变的
  23.aristocratic a. 贵族的;贵族式的
  24.amusement n. 娱乐,消遣

  25.gamble vi./vt./n. 赌博,打赌;投机,冒险
  26.duel n./vi. 决斗;(双方的)斗争
  27.warfare n. 战争,作战,
  28.aptly ad. 恰当地,贴切地;灵巧地
  29.phrase n. 短语,词语;习惯用语
  phrases
  1.so far as …knows 就某人所知

  
so far as somebody/someone knows
  He isn't coming today, so far as I know. 据我所知,他今天不会来。

  So far as I know, he won't be back until next month. 据我所知,他等到下个月才能回来。
  2.of…value 价值
  of+n=相应的形容词
  具有特性的名词。
  be of+n=be+相应的形容词

  This work is of great importance / value / interest = This work is very important/valuable / interesting. 这项工作很重要/很有价值/很有趣。
  Information is of great value to him. 信息对他有很大价值。
  很多人仍然认为妇女的职业是第二重要的。
  Many people still believe that women's career are secondary important/are of secondary importance.
  3.of…importance 重要性

  4.in the strict sense 在严格的意义上
  They are not immigrants, at least not in the strict sense. 从严格意义上来说他们不是移民。
  5.of…interest 兴趣
  6.to coincide with 相符,一致
  7.attitude towards 的态度;意见
  What is your attitude to/towards this idea? 你对这个想法的态度如何?
  8.at a guess 凭猜测
  9.to go in for 参加,从事;以为兴趣,爱好
  What sports do you go in for? 你喜欢什么运动?
  He goes in for pop music. 他喜欢流行音乐。
  The boy goes in for stamp collecting. 这个男孩喜欢集邮。
  10.to get one's teeth into 死死咬住,紧紧抓住;认真对待

             Work, Labor, and Play
  So far as I know, Miss Hannah Arendt was the first person to define the essential difference between work and labor. To be happy, a man must feel, firstly, free and, secondly, important. He cannot be really happy if he is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing, or if what he enjoys doing is ignored by society as of no value or importance.1In a society where slavery in the strict sense has been abolished, the sign that what a man does is of social value is that he is paid money to do it, but a laborer today can rightly be called a wage slave.2A man is a laborer if the job society offers him is of no interest to himself but he is compelled to take it by the necessity of earning a living and supporting his family.3

  1.本句中,as of no value or importance if 从句中作主语补足语, as 在这里是介词,解释为"作为…""be ignored by society as …"被社会作为毫无价值或无关紧要的东西而忽视。
  句中有两个what 引导的从句,第一个是宾语从句作do 的宾语,第二个是主语从句,谓语是is ignored
  if后面跟了主语从句
  译文:如果社会强迫他去做自己不乐意做的事;或者社会无视他自己喜欢做的事,将其当作没有价值或无关紧要的,他就不可能真正快乐。
  2.句子的基本部分是:In a society… the sign… is that he is paid money to do it, but …where slavery …abolished 是定语从句修饰societythat what a man does is of social value the sign的同位语从句,其中又套有一个主语从句what a man doesthat he is paid money to do it是表语从句;but 引导的是一个并列句。
  译文:在一个严格意义上讲已经废除奴隶制的社会里,一个人所做的事具有社会价值的标志就是他为此得到了报酬,但实际上我们可以把今天的劳作者称为薪水奴隶。
  3.本句中society offers him 是省去了连接词that 的定语从句,
  修饰the jobby the necessity of doing sth.由于干某事的必要性。
  译文:"如果一个人对社会给予的工作毫无兴趣,只是为了生计和养家糊口而被迫接受这份工作,那他就是一名劳作者。
  The antithesis to labor is play. When we play a game, we enjoy what we are doing, otherwise we should not play it, but it is a purely private activity; society could not care less whether we play it or not.
  could not careless
as little as possible
  You can't be more careless.你太不细心了。

  Between labor and play stands work.4A man is a worker if he is personally interested in the job which society pays him to do; what from the point of view of society is necessary labor is from his own point of view voluntary play.5Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work depends, not on the job itself, but on the tastes of the individual who undertakes it.6The difference does not, for example, coincide with the difference between a manual and a mental job; a gardener or a cobbler may be a worker, a bank clerk a laborer. Which a man is can be seen from his attitude toward leisure. To a worker, leisure means simply the hours he needs to relax and rest in order to work efficiently. He is therefore more likely to take too little leisure than too much;7 workers die of coronaries and forget their wives' birthdays. To the laborer, on the other hand, leisure means freedom from compulsion, so that it is natural for him to imagine that the fewer hours he has to spend laboring, and the more hours he is free to play, the better.8
  4.Between labor and play stands work. 介于劳作和娱乐之间的是工作。
  这是一个全部倒装句,因为前两段分别介绍了labor play ,下一段将介绍 work, 所以将labor and play 提前,起到承上启下的修饰效果。
  5.what 引导的是主语从句,两个from the point of view 皆为状语。谓语动词是第二个is 。表语是voluntary.
  本句意思:"从社会观点来看是必要的劳动,从他个人观点来看是自愿娱乐。
"
  6.Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work 是主语从句,注意其中谓语is to be 表示"应该"depends, not on … but on … "不取决于而取决于
…"
  译为:一件工作被归类为劳作还是工作,不取决于工作本身,而取决于从事这项工作的人的兴趣。

  His vocation coincides with his avocation. 他的职业正好和他的业余爱好一致。
  to a worker
  
to the laborer
  7.He is therefore more likely to take too little leisure than too much; 这是对同一个人不同方面的比较。译为:"因此他的休闲时间可能太少而不是太多。
"
  8.die of 死于
……
  die of 死于自然原因

  die from 死于非自然原因
  so that在句中引导结果状语从句。"the fewer… the more … the better "是一个比较结构,表示"就越…"The better 后面省略了it is .
  译为:另一方面,对劳动者来说,闲暇意味着从强迫劳动中摆脱出来的自由,因此他会很自然地他会想象自己被迫劳动的时间越短,自由娱乐的时间越长就越好。

  What percentage of the population in a modern technological society are, like myself, in the fortunate position of being workers?9At a guess 1 would say sixteen per cent, and I do not think that figure is likely to get bigger in the future.
  9.percentage 作单数还是复数取决于它所代表的名词是可数的还是不可数的。一般说来population "人口"解时,是总称,为集合名词,一般作不可数名词用,但这里由于percentage 与后面的workers 有直接呼应关系,从意义一致的角度看,谓语动词用了are而没有从语法一致的角度用is

  译为:在现代技术社会里,有百分之几的人能像我一样处在工作者的幸运位置上呢?
  Technology and the division of labor have done two things; by eliminating in many fields the need for special strength or skill, they have made a very large number of paid occupations which formerly were enjoyable work into boring labor, and by increasing productivity they have reduced the number of necessary laboring hours.10It is already possible to imagine a society in which the majority of the population, that is to say, its laborers, will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy. 11When one recalls how aristocracies in the past actually behaved, the prospect is not cheerful. Indeed, the problem of dealing with boredom may be even more difficult for such a future mass society than it was for aristocracies.12The latter, for example, ritualized their time; there was a season to shoot grouse, a season to spend in town, etc. The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which it will be in the economic interest of certain people to change as often as possible13Again, the masses cannot go in for hunting, for very soon there would be no animals left to hunt. For other aristocratic amusements like gambling, dueling, and warfare, it may be only too easy to find equivalents in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence.14Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression into their work, be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist.15
The role of aggression in mental work is aptly expressed by the phrase "getting one's teeth into a problem."
  10.句中冒号后面的句子用来解释前面的句子,它的主要结构为:by…they have made …occupations…into …labor and by…they have reduced the number…。在第一个by 介词短语中, in many fields 是动名词eliminating 的状语,原应在skill之后,但因宾语部分太长,所以被提到前面,插在了动词eliminating 和它的宾语the need之间。"which formerly were enjoyable work为定语从句,修饰occupations

  译为:技术和劳动分工完成了两件事:通过在很多领域消除了对特殊能力或技能的需求,把大量以前令人愉快的有偿工作变成了枯燥无味的劳作;通过提高生产力减少了必要的劳动时间。
  11.句中in which 直至句尾为定语从句,修饰society。定语从句中又包含有一个状语从句as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy , 其中第二个as 引导的是带被动语态的比较状语从句。注意leisure 为状语从句的主语,所以不能再另加主语。
  译为:现在人们已经可能去想象这样一个社会:其大部分人口,即劳作者,将会享有与以前贵族阶层几乎同样多的闲暇时间。
  12.mass society 意为"大众社会"
  确实,与当时的贵族相比,为这样一个未来的大众社会解决如何打发闲暇的问题要困难的多。

  13.which 引导的定语从句修饰fashion,从句中it 是形式主语,真正主语是后面的不定式to change"change"的宾语是which ,fashion
  本句译为:"老百姓更可能用时尚取代千篇一律的程式,而尽可能地经常改变时尚是符合某些人的经济利益的。"
  14.only too easy to do sth. "非常容易做某事
"
  too… to … 一般作以致不能…”讲, 但是加上only, but, all 等词后则为"非常做某事"。例如:我非常愿意和你一起工作。
I'm only too pleased to work with you.
  
He was only too glad to help you.
  
He was too busy to help you.
  译为:对其他的贵族娱乐如赌博、决斗和打仗,要找一些与其对等的消遣方式实在是很容易,如危险驾驶、吸毒和无意义的暴力行为。

  15.be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist 为虚拟式让步状语从句,等价于:whether it is physical like the work of a smith, or it is mental like the work of a scientist or an artist.
  译为:工作者很少有暴力行为,因为他们会把自己的进取精神都投入到工作中去,不管是像铁匠那样的体力工作还是像科学家或艺术家那样的脑力工作,都是如此。

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