自考《英语（二）》课程讲义--Text B To Sleep, Perchance to Dream
Text B To Sleep, Perchance to Dream
1 perchance ad. [古] 1.偶然，意外地；2.可能，或许
2 miserable a. 悲惨的；可怜的
3 far-fetched a. 1.牵强的；2.未必会的，靠不住的
4 veteran n. 1.老兵，老手；2.[美]退伍军人
5 administration n. 1.管理，经营；2.行政，行政机关
6 sleepy a. 困倦的，嗜睡的
7 link n. 环节，联系
8 elude vt. （巧妙地）逃避，躲避
9 respectively ad. 各自的，分别地
10 definitive a. 1.决定的，确定的；2.限定的，明确的
11 evolve vt. 1.使发展，使形成，制定；
12 differ vi. 1.不同，相异（from）；
13 surprisingly ad. 惊人地；出乎意料地
14 namely ad. 即，也就是
15 plus prep. 加，加上
16 acronym n. 首字母缩略词
17 eyeball n. 眼球
18 correlation n. 相互关系，关联
19 physiology n. 生理学
20 unhappy n. 1.不快乐的，愁苦的；2.不幸的
21 dreamer n. 1.做梦的人；2.空想家
22 volunteer n. 志愿者；志愿兵
23 identity n. 1.同一，一致；2.身份，本体
24 primarily ad. 1.首先，起初；2.首要地，主要地
25 merry a. 欢乐的，愉快的
26 psychology n. 1.心理学；2.心理
27 location n. 1.定位，测位；2.位置，场所
28 reinforce vt. 1.增援，支援；2.加强，增加；
Phrases and Expressions
1 influence on 对…的影响
2 to break into 分成（部分）
3 to check into 调查
account for 占…（部分），说明…原因
in turn 反过来，依次，轮流
1.link : n./ vt. 环节，联系
I'd like to have a few links removed from this necklace. 我想从这条项链上去掉几环。
There is a clear link between poverty and malnutrition. 贫穷与营养不良之间有明显的联系。
2.respectively : ad. 各自地，分别地
派生词：respect vt./n. 尊敬，尊重；方面
In the 200 metres, Lizzy and Sarah came first and third respectively. 在200 米赛跑中，利兹和莎拉分别获第一和第三名。
注意区别：respectable a. 值得尊敬的；respectful a. 恭敬的，尊敬的
3. differ : vi .不同，相异
派生词：different a. 不同的，相异的；difference n. 区别，差别，相异
The twins look alike, but they differ in temperament.
Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.
4. identity: n. 同一，一致；身份
派生词：identify v. 识别，鉴别；identical a. 相同的，同一的
The man's identity was being kept secret while he was helping the police with information about the murder. 这个人在向警察提供有关此谋杀案的信息时身份是保密的。
5. influence on : 对 …的影响
Parents have great influence on their children. 父母对孩子有极大的影响。
Text B To Sleep, Perchance to Dream
So you awoke this morning in a miserable mood. Well, maybe your special dream character didn't put in an appearance last night, or maybe there just weren't enough people drifting through your dreams.⑴
1.Well, maybe your special dream character didn't put in an appearance last night, or maybe there just weren't enough people drifting through your dreams. ( para.1)
to put in an appearance (出于责任或礼貌，暂时地）到场，出席，露面
drifting through your dreams. 现在分词短语作定语，修饰people
If that sounds like far-fetched fantasy, consider these interesting findings that have emerged from eight years of sleep and dream research at the Veterans Administration hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio:
While sleep affects how sleepy, friendly, aggressive, and unhappy we feel after awakening, feelings of happiness or unhappy we feel after awakening, feelings of happiness or unhappiness depend most strongly on our dreams.⑵
2.While sleep affects how sleepy, friendly, aggressive, and unhappy we feel after awakening, feelings of happiness or unhappiness depend most strongly on our dreams. (para.3)
how sleepy, friendly, aggressive , and unhappy we feel after awakening 为宾语从句，
depend … on 依赖，依靠
Each of us has a special dream character, a type of person whose appearance in our dreams makes us feel happier when we awake.
What we dream at night isn't as important to how we feel in the morning as the number of people who appear in our dreams.⑶ The more people, the better we feel.
3.What we dream at night isn't as important to how we feel in the morning as the number of people who appear in our dreams. (para.5)
What we dream at night 主语从句 as important…as 像…一样重要。
Our sleep influences our mood. Our mood, in turn, affects our performance.⑷ And throughout the day, our levels of mood and performance remain closely linked.
During the past two decades, research has greatly expanded our knowledge about sleep and dreams. Scientists have identified various stages of sleep, and they have found that humans can function well on very little sleep, but only if they dream. ⑸Yet the true function of sleep and dreaming continues to elude precise explanation.
Function v. 运转
only if ：只有
if only ：引导虚拟条件句，要是…就好了。
In 1970 Milton Kramer and Thomas Roth, researchers at the VA Hospital and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, respectively, raised this question: Do our moods in the morning relate in any way to our sleep and dreams the previous night?
Human experience suggests that they do. Certainly we generally feel better after a good night's sleep. But Drs. Kramer and Roth sought a much more definitive answer. And that answer, though sill evolving is a positive yes.
Kramer and Roth began by seeking to determine whether one's mood differs between night and morning, and whether this is related directly to sleep.⑹ They found that there is a difference, and it is definitely related to sleep. Then they explored the various aspects of mood and their relationship to the various stages of sleep and dreaming.
be related to 与…有关系
What does a good night's sleep mean to our mood? Generally we are happier, less aggressive, sleepier, and, a bit surprisingly, less friendly. Being sleepier is easily explained. It simply takes a little time to become fully alert after awakening.
But why should we feel less friendly? Here the researchers must speculate a little. They suggest the answer may be the lack of association with other humans during the period of sleep.
Once the two doctors established scientifically what common sense and folk wisdom had long taught - namely, that there is link between sleep and how we feel -they set out to learn what parts of our mood are related to which specific parts of the sleep cycle. ⑺
Common sense 是普通常识
folk wisdom 民间智慧 folk a.民间的
set out to do 着手做某事
Normal sleep is broken into five distinct parts - Stages I through 4, plus REM, an acronym for rapid eye movement. Much remains unknown about each of the five sleep stages. Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep, a period when the eyeballs move rapidly beneath the closed lids. And whether they remember or not, all adults dream, usually four to six times a night.
Three types of mood are strongly related to some specific stage of sleep. Our friendly, aggressive, and sleepy feelings all relate to Stage 2 sleep, which accounts for most of our total sleep hours. ⑻Our friendly and sleepy feelings, but not our aggressive feelings, are affected as well by Stages 3 and 4, and by how long it takes us to fall asleep.
account for 占…比例
This means that if you get less sleep than normal -and people vary a great deal in how much sleep they normally require -you awake more friendly, more aggressive, and less sleepy.
At this point, the doctors found themselves puzzled. They knew from their earlier work that sleep determines if people feel happier. Yet when they studied the various sleep stages, they found no correlation between sleep physiology and the unhappy mood. Clearly sleep made a difference, but that difference didn't relate to how much time one spent in each of the various sleep stages.
The two researchers decided the key to whether we feel happy or unhappy after sleep must lie in sleep's psychological component -our dreams.⑼ So they began studying dream content -what dreamers dreamed and who appeared in their dreams -to see how this affected mood.
"We feel happy or unhappy after sleep"这个句子是介词宾语从句的主语，是一个主语从句。
Instead of sleeping through the night, volunteers now were awakened four times while in REM sleep. They were asked about such things as what their dreams were about; the sex, age, identity, and number of the people in their dreams; and what each person in a dream was doing.
Interestingly, Kramer and Roth found that being awakened four times a night didn't make a difference in the volunteers' morning mood patterns. But they did find that who appears in a dream has a far greater influence on mood than what occurs in the dream. "Who affects all the moods." Kramer says, "but primarily the unhappy mood."
Each of us, it turns out, has a special dream character,⑽ and if this type of character appears in our dreams, we are happier when we awake. "For people in general, how unhappy you feel after sleep depends on who is in the dream." Kramer says. "Who it is that makes you happier is different for you than for me."⑾ For some it may be an older woman, for example; for others, a young man.
Who appears in your dream isn't the only important thing. The more people who appear in you dreams the happier you are on awakening. It's a case of the more the merrier.⑿ "The bad thing in a dream is to be alone; you feel worse," Kramer explains. "You can relate this to wakening psychology, where being alone leads to more unhappiness. There is something about interacting with people that produces happiness."
A number of researchers have examined the relationship of mood and performance. The doctors also checked into this relationship, and they have found some interesting correlations.
"We found that the more friendly, more aggressive, more clear-thinking, less sleepy, and surprisingly, the more unhappy you are, the better you perform. ⒀That last one -the unhappy - I can't explain," Kramer says. Moreover, the level of a person's moods and the level of his or her performance rise and fall together throughout the day.
Initially the two VA researchers worked only with men, because the dreams of men are far easier to study. Men and women dream differently. Indeed, sex is the biggest factor in accounting for differences in the people, activities, locations and feelings that occur in dreams.⒁ Dr. Kramer says, "When you compare men and women, you get a greater difference in dream content than when you compare, say, 20-and 60-year-olds, or black and white."
（14）account for 解释…的原因
Last year the VA researchers began studying the relationship of sleep, dreams, and mood in women. This work is continuing, but the initial findings reinforce what they had found in men.
"Overall, the women are just like men," Kramer says.
被动语态的基本结构为： be + 及物动词的过去分词
例如：His room is being painted.
My wallet was stolen a week ago.
The book has been translated into many languages.
This work should be done as soon as possible.
At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.
The work should be finished as soon as possible. 应尽快把工作完成。
Resistance is measured in Ohms. 电阻是以欧姆度量的。
A rare element was found last year. 去年发现了一种稀有元素。
Such data can be depended on. 这些数据可靠。
The children are taken care of by their mum. 妈妈照料孩子们。
It is hoped that … "希望…"
It is reported that … " 据报道…"
It is said that … "据说…"
It is supposed that …"据猜测…"
It must be admitted … " 必须承认…"
It must be pointed that …"必须指出…"
It is asserted that … "据声称…"
It is believed that …"人们认为…"
It is generally considered that …"人们普遍认为…"
It is well known that …" 众所周知… "
It was told that …"有人曾说…"
It has been found that …" 人们已经发现…"
Unit 12 练习
1. symptom 2. intellectual 3. detail 4. initial
5. inventor 6. confront 7. sensitivity 8. reflection
9. creativity 10. character 11. trace 12. modest
13. investment 14. to substitute … for 15. be contrary to 16. to put off
17. be confronted with 18. to gaze at
19. be unaware of 20. to impress…on
21. be free from 22. be beneficial to
1. At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.(para.1)
2. There are always those who would substitute fantasy lives for the rewards of real activity.(para.2)
3. Most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it. (para. 2)
4. Not only are they less able to deal with the pressure of day-to-day existence, but also their self -control and self-direction become endangered. (para.2)
5. But its beneficial effects go beyond this. (para. 3)
Go beyond 表示"超越…， 不仅仅是…"
6. Historically, scientists and inventors are one group that seems to take full advantage of relaxed moments. (para.7)
Take advantage of 利用
7.Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with, he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind. (para.7)
8.Picture yourself as winning and that will contribute remarkably to success.
9.The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had already attained them.
Recent research shows / indicates that daydreaming is part of daily life.
Daydreaming is not only beneficial to the mental balance, but also to enhance one's ability of self-control.
Daydreaming can not only help maintain emotional balance, but also improve one's self-control.
Historically, many scientists and inventors have taken full advantage of daydreaming.
Many scientists and inventors in history took full use of daydreaming.
While composing, some composers seem to approach a state of deep daydreaming.
Some composers seemed to approach a state of deep daydreaming while they were composing.
Picture yourself as a winner rather than loser in your daydream.
Picture yourself in your daydream as winning rather than defeated.
1.According to Dr. Kramer, ______ people who appear in your dreams, ______ you are on awakening. （99.10）
A. as many … as happy
B. the more… the more happy
C. the more… the happier
D. the most … the happiest
答案：C。考点：本题主要考查the + 比较级， the + 比较级，结构是"越… , 越…"
2.Hold a picture of yourself long and steadily enough _____ your mind's eye, and you will be drawn toward it . (99.10)
A.at B.in C.before D.in front of
答案：B。考点：本题主要考查词组in one's mind's eye 意思是"在脑海中，在心目中"。
3.In the past two decades, research ______(expand) our knowledge about sleep and dreams. (00.4)
答案：has expanded。本题主要考查现在完成时。"in the past two decades"经常是表示现在完成时的时间状语。
4.It has been proved that their best ideas seem _____(occur) when they were relaxing. (01.4)
答案：to have occurred。 考点：本题主要考查seem 后面要加动词不定式完成时作宾语。
答案：Scientists are studying why daydreaming is beneficial to people's health.
6.A life ____(live) without fantasy and daydreaming is a really poor life indeed. （02.4）
答案：lived。考点：lived 是过去分词作定语修饰life。 词组"live a …life "表示过着…样的生活。