山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Let Your Mind Wander

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月08日

Text A Let Your Mind Wander

 

课文简介
  从传统的观点出发,白日做梦一直被认为是有害的,或者至少是无用的。
  然而科学研究表明,白日做梦是日常生活必不可少的部分,它对保持情绪平衡、身体松弛、智力发展、注意力集中和同他人的交往和沟通有着极大的好处。
  本文通过许多名人及有成就者的成功都同以前的梦幻有关的实例。说明把自己幻想成一个胜利者有助于你取得成就。
  文章的最后一部分,号召大家学会幻想未来,并朝着此目标努力,最终可造就一个更有独创性,更富想象力,更加心满意足和一个更踌躇满志的你。
  Para.1 The traditional idea about daydreaming
  
Paras.2 – 10 The advantages of daydreaming
  
Paras.11 – 13 Learn to daydream
              New Words

 1 daydream

  vi./n. 白日做梦

 2 symptom

  n. 症状,征兆

 3 habitual

  a. 习惯性的,习以为常的

 4 maladjustment

  n.. 失调的,不适应环境的

 5 compensatory

  a. 赔偿的,补偿的

 6 equilibrium

  n. 平衡,均衡,平均

 7 intellectual

  n./a. 知识分子,智力的,理智的

 8 detail

  n./vt. 细节,详情;详述,详细说明

 9 enhance

  vt. 提高,增强

 10 spur

  vt./n. 激励,鼓舞

 11 initial

  a./n. 最初的,开始的;词首的,首字母

 12 inventor

  n. 发明者,创造者

 13 waylay

  vt. 伏击;拦住问讯

 14 muse

  vt./vi./n. 沉思,冥想

 15 confront

  vt. 面对,遭遇;正视,对抗

 16 painter

  n. 漆工;画家

 17 sensitivity

  n. 敏感性,灵敏度

 18 inner

  a./n. 内部的,里面的;内部,里面

 19 reflection

  n. 反射,反映;深思,考虑

 20 creativity

  n. 创造性

 21 effortless

  a. 不作努力的;不费力的,容易的

 22 dreamlike

  a. 梦一般的,梦幻的

 23 surrounding

  n./a. 周围的事物;环境;周围的

 24 character

  n. 性格,品质;特性,特征;人物,角色

 25 thinker

  n. 思想家,思考者

 26 steadily

  ad. 稳固地,稳定地

 27 vividly

  ad. 鲜明地,生动地

 28 drift

  n./vi./vt. 漂流,趋势,倾向;漂流;漂泊

 29 trace

  n./vt. 痕迹,踪迹;跟踪,查找

 30 undisturbed

  a. 不受干扰的;宁静的

 31 tune

  n./vt. 曲调,曲子;和谐,协调

 32 midst

  n./prep. 中间,当中

 33 impoverished

  a. 贫困的,赤贫的

 34 well-being

  n. 健康;福利,幸福

 35 modest

  a. 谦虚的,谦恭的;适中的

 36 investment

  n. 投资;投入

 37 excitement

  n. 刺激;兴奋

               词 组:

 1 to excess

  过分,过度,过量

 2 to substitute…for

  用代替

 3 be contrary to

  与相反

 4 in reality

  实际上,事实上

 5 to put off

  延期;消除;阻碍

 6 to let go of

  放手;放开

 7 be confronted with

  面临,面对

 8 to draw on

  用做来源,依靠;

 9 to gaze at

  凝视,注视

 10 be unaware of

  不知道…, 没察觉到

 11 to dream of

  梦见,梦想

 12 in one’s mind’ eye

  在脑海里

 13 at sea

  在海上,在航海中

 14 to go over

  越过,渡过

 15 to impress … on

  使铭记,牢记

 16 be free from

  没有的;不受

 17 to put aside

  放在一边,撇开

 18 be beneficial to

  对有益

 19 to add up to

  总和是

 to come up with

  提出,提供, 赶上,来临,流行(起来)

  词汇精讲:
  1.symptom : n. 症状,征兆

  Most infections are contagious before any symptoms are noticed.
  大多数传染病在症状被发现之前已具有传染性。

  He recognizes the symptoms, but refuses to admit that he has marital problems.
  他承认这些征兆,但不愿承认自己的婚姻发生了问题。

  2.habitual : a. 习惯性的,习以为常的
  Ice and snow are a habitual sight in the north.冰雪在北方是常见的。
  3.detail: n./ vt. 详情,细节, 详述
  You can get details of nursery schools from the local authority.
  你可向地方当局了解有关托儿所的详细情况。

  We haven't yet had a chance to discuss the matter in detail.
  我们还没有机会详细讨论这一问题。

  4.enhancevt. 提高,加强 (increase , improve
  The moonlight enhanced the beauty of the scene. 月光更增添了景色的秀美。
  The praise of the teacher enhanced his confidence. 老师的赞赏增强了他的信心。
  5.initial : a. 最初的,开始的
  派生词:initiative n. 创始,首创精神;initiate v. 开始,创始;发起,发动
  My initial surprise was soon replaced by delight. 我最初的惊奇不久便被喜悦替代了。
  6.confront : vt. 使面对,使面临,使遭遇
  The new system was confronted with difficulties at the start. 新体制起初遇到很多困难。
  Pronunciation is just one of the many problems that confront the language learner.
  发音只是学语言的人所面临的诸多问题之一。

  We should confront the difficulties in life instead of trying to escape them.
  我们应该正视生活中的困难,而不是逃避它们。

  7.sensitivity: n. 敏感性,灵敏度
  派生词:sensitive a. 敏感的,灵敏的
  His sensitivity to the current events made us surprised. 他对时事的敏感性使我们感到惊讶。
  8.innera./n.内部的,里面的
  反义词:outer a. 外部的,外面的
  The label is on the inner side of the box. 标签位于盒子的内侧。
  If she had inner doubts, it was not apparent to anyone else. 她若心中生疑亦不形之于色。
  9.reflectionn. 反射;映像,倒影
  派生词:reflect v. 反射,反映
  He gave much reflection on the problem but still had no answer.
  他对那个问题思考了很久,但仍未找到答案。

  It took him two years to finish his book “Reflections on the past”.
  他用两年时间写完一本书,叫做《往事反思》。

  10.creativity: n. 创造力,创造性
  派生词:create v. 创造;creative a. 有创造力的
  11.tracen. / vt. 跟踪,查找

  Did the police find any trace of the murderer?
  警方发现凶手的行踪了吗?

  The practice of giving eggs at Easter can be traced back to festivals in ancient China.
  复活节送鸡蛋的习俗可以追溯到古代中国的一些节日。

  12.modesta. 谦虚的,谦恭的;适中的,不过分的
  反义词:immodest a. 傲慢的,不谦虚的,不正派的,下流的
  She is very modest about the prizes she has won. 她对自己得奖非常谦虚。
  His needs are quite modest. 他的需求一点也不过分。(He doesn't ask for too much .
  13.investment n. 投资,投入派生词:invest v. 投资,投入
  Stocks are regarded as good long-term investments. 股票被认为是理想的长期投资。
  His investment in that business has done well. 他在那家商行的投资收益很好。
  词组:phrases
  1.to excess 过分,过度,过量

  They both eat to excess. 他们俩都吃得过多。
  The heavy rain filled the lakes to excess. 大雨使湖水超过了湖的容量。
  2.to substitute…for :用替代
  You can substitute vegetable oil for butter in this recipe.
  在这一食谱中,你可以用植物油代替黄油。

  3.be contrary to:与.. 相反
  His actions are contrary to the rules. 他的行为与这些规则相违背。
  Contrary to all our expectations he's actually found a well-paid job and a nice girlfriend.
  与我们大家的预料相反,他竟然找到了一份报酬优厚的工作和一个很好的女朋友。

  4.to put off: 延期;阻碍
  The meeting has been put off for a week. 会议延期一周。
  I can't put off going to the dentist any longer. 我得去看牙医,不能再耽搁了。
  5.to gaze at:凝视,注视 近义词:to stare at 瞪着,怒视
  What are you gazing at? 你在盯着看什么?
  6.to impress …on :使铭记,牢记
  My father impressed on me the value of hard work. 父亲要我铭记努力工作的重要性。
  7.be free from :没有的;不受
  He wished to live a life entirely free from troubles. 他希望能过上一种无忧无虑的生活。
  8.to put aside : 放在一边
  She put the newspaper aside and picked up a book. 她把报纸放下,拿起了一本书。
  Every week I put aside a bit of money for a rainy day. 每周我都存点钱,以备不时之需。
  9.be beneficial to :对有益,对有利
  Fresh air is beneficial to one's health. 新鲜的空气有益健康。
  Daydreaming is highly beneficial to your health. 梦幻非常有益于你的健康。
  To come up with 提出
  课文精讲:
  Let Your Mind Wander
  Until recently daydreaming was generally considered either a waste of time or a symptom of neurotic tendencies, and habitual daydreaming was regarded as evidence of maladjustment or an escape from life's realities and responsibilities. It was believed that habitual daydreaming would eventually distance people from society and reduce their effectiveness in coping with real problems. At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.

  1.句中as its best 是一个词组,意思是"最好也不过"daydreaming 是动名词,在句中作主语;a compensatory… in life was considered 的主语补足语。
  本句意思是:白日做梦最好也不过被认为是对生活中实际事物的一种补偿性的替代。
  As with anything carried to excess, daydreaming can be harmful. There are always those who would substitute fantasy lives for the rewards of real activity. But such extremes are relatively rare, and there is a growing body of evidence to support the fact that most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it.

  2.本句中由and连接的两个并列句;该句中to 引起的不定式结构一直到句尾,作evidence 的后置定语;在这一结构中,the fact 后又接由that 引起的同位语从句。本句意思:"但是这类极端的情况较为罕见,愈来愈多的证据却支持这样一种现象,即大部分人受白日做梦过少而不是过多之苦。"
  We are now beginning to learn how valuable it really is and that when individuals are completely prevented from daydreaming, their emotional balance can be disturbed.

  3.该句中的how that 引导名词性从句作动词learn 的宾语。在that 引起的从句中,when 又引导一个从句作状语。本句意思:"现在我们开始了解,白日做梦如何真有价值。并且人如果白日完全不做梦,他们的情绪平衡会被打乱。"
  Not only are they less able to deal with the pressures of day-to-day existence, but also their self-control and self-direction become endangered.

  4.本句是由not only but also 连接的两个并列分句。"not only "否定词放在句首,因此句子要倒装。本句意思:"不仅他们应付每日生活的压力的能力会变差,他们的自我控制和自我导向能力也会受到损害。"
  Recent research indicates that daydreaming is part of daily life and that a certain amount each day is essential for maintaining equilibrium.

  5.本句indicate 后接两个由that 引导的宾语从句。本句意思:最近研究表明,白日做梦是日常生活的一部分,每天白天做一定的梦对保持情绪平衡是必不可少的,科学已经发现,白日做梦是一种有效的松弛办法。
  Daydreaming, science has discovered, is an effective relaxation technique. But its beneficial effects go beyond this.

  6.to go beyond 超出,不止该句意思是:但它的好处不止这些
  Experiments show that daydreaming significantly contributes to intellectual growth, powers of concentration, and the ability to interact and communicate with others.

  equilibrium 是指多项平衡,balance 是两项平衡
  7.本句中contribute to 之后是三个名词词组作并列宾语,即"智力发展""集中注意的能力""与他人交往、沟通的能力"。本句意思:"实验证明白日做梦对智力发展、注意力集中和同别人的交往和沟通有相当大的好处。"
  
In an experiment with schoolchildren in New York, Dr. Joan Freyberg observed improved concentration: "There was less running around, more happy feelings, more talking and playing in the group, and more attention paid to detail."
  In another experiment at Yale University, Dr. Jerome Singer found that daydreaming resulted in improved self-control and enhanced creative thinking ability.

  8.在由that 引导的宾语从句中,resulted in 意为造成,导致improved enhanced 都是过去分词作定语,分别修饰self-control creative thinking ability. 按照汉语习惯应译为:有助于自我控制的改善和创造性思维能力的增。
  Pupil当名词讲的时候,它是"小学生"。它的另外一个意思是眼睛里的瞳孔。

  小学有两种说法:primary schoolelementary school
   Daydreaming, Singer pointed out, is one way individuals can improve upon reality. It is, he concluded, a powerful spur to achievement.
  But the value of daydreaming does not stop here. It has been found that it improves a person's ability to be better adapted to practical, immediate concerns, to solve everyday problems, and to come up more readily with new ideas.

  9.句中ability 后接三个由to 引起的不定式短语作后置定语,本句的意思是:"人们已经发现,它能改善一个人的能力,使他能更好地适应实际的紧迫的事务,解决日常问题并且更容易地提出新的想法。"
  Contrary to popular belief, constant and conscious effort at solving a problem is, in reality, one of the most inefficient ways of coping with it. While conscious initial effort is always necessary, effective solutions to especially severe problems frequently occur when conscious attempts to solve them have been put off.
Inability to relax, to let go of a problem, often prevents its solution.
  Come up……… with 赶上;提出,拿出
  10.句中while 引导让步状语从句,表示"虽然,尽管"的意思。句子的主句中又有一个when引导的时间状语从句。在时间状语从句中conscious attempt是主语,attempt 后面的to solve them 是动词不定式短语作定语修饰attempt,从句的谓语是have been put off。本句意思:虽然最初的有意识的努力永远是必要的,但对特别困难问题的有效解决办法常常在这种有意识的努力遇到了阻碍的时候才会出现。

  Historically, scientists and inventors are one group that seems to take full advantage of relaxed moments.

  11.句中that 是引导定语从句修饰group
  本句意思:"在历史上,科学家和发明家是似乎是能充分利用松弛时刻的一类人。
"
  Their biographies reveal that their best ideas seem to have occurred when they were relaxing and daydreaming. It is well known, for example, that Newton solved many of his toughest problems when his attention was waylaid by private musings. Thomas Alva Edison also knew the value of "half waking" states. Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with, he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind.

  12.句中whenever confronted 引导的过去分词短语作时间状语,也可以认为这是一个时间状语从句省略了he was. "task"which seemed too hard to be dealt with 是定语从句修饰task 。其中"too…to"表示"….以至于不…."。本句意思:"无论什么时候他遇到一个似乎解决不了的问题时,他会躺在沙发上四肢舒展,让各种幻觉涌满他的脑海。"
  Painters, writers, and composers also have drawn heavily on their sensitivity to inner fantasies. Debussy used to gaze at the River Seine and the golden reflections of the selling sun to establish an atmosphere for creativity. Brahms found that ideas came effortless only when he approached a state of deep daydreaming. And Cesar Frank is said to have walked around with a dreamlike gaze while composing, seemingly totally unaware of his surroundings

  13. 句中的"while composing"是现在分词结构作时间状语从句;"seemingly totally unaware of his surroundings 是形容词短语作伴随状语。其中"…is said to do sth"表示"据说某人做某事"。本句意思:"据说赛萨尔·弗兰克在作曲的时候,走来走去,朦胧凝眸,仿佛毫不意识周围的一切。"
  unaware of 没有意识到

  Long before, Before long对比
  例题:The face of the city will be changed before long(城市的面貌不久将被改变。)
  
Many successful people actually daydreamed their successes and achievements long before they realized them. Henry J. Kaiser maintained that "you can imagine your future," and he believed that a great part of his business success was due to positive use of daydreams. Harry S. Truman said that he used daydreaming for rest. Conrad Hilton dreamed of operating a hotel when he was a boy. He recalled that all his accomplishments were first realized in his imagination.
  "Great living starts with a picture, held in some person's imagination, of what he would like someday to do or be.

  14.句中"picture"后有两个后置定语,一个是held 分词短语,另一个是of what 名词从句。本句意思:"伟大的生活起始于一个人在想象中幻想自己有朝一日能做出什么事业或成为什么人物。"
  Florence Nightingale dreamed of being a nurse. Edison pictured himself an inventor; all such characters escaped the mere push of circumstance by imagining a future so vividly that they headed for it.
15.此句中的两个常用词的词性都是动词 picture v. 想象 head v. 前进,前往
  本句意思:"爱迪生把自己想象成一名发明家。所以这些人都如此生动地幻想自己的未来,朝着这个既定方向前进,从而避免了单纯的受环境的推动。"
  " These are the words of the well-known thinker Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick, and they show that people can literally daydream themselves to success. Fosdick, aware of the wonderful power of positive daydreaming, offered this advice: "Hold a picture of yourself long and steadily enough in your mind's eye, and you will be drawn toward it. Picture yourself vividly as defeated and that alone will make victory impossible. Picture yourself as winning and that will contribute remarkably to success. Do not picture yourself as anything, and you will drift like an abandoned ship at sea."

  16.aware of 部分是形容词词组作原因状语。引号中的祈使句相当于一个条件状语从句:if you hold a picture …
  本句意思:"福斯迪克知道积极的白日梦的神奇作用,提出了如下的意见:"如果你经久地、坚定地在你的想像中给自己描绘一个形象,你将会被引往这个形象。你如果把自己生动地幻

想成一个战败者,单单这一点就能使胜利成为不可能。你要把自己幻想成一个胜利者,这将 显著地有助你取得成就。你要是什么也不幻想自己,你将像一条被遗弃的船,在大海上四处漂泊。"
  To get the results, you should picture yourself - as vividly as possible - as you want to be. The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had already attained them.

   17.本句用了虚拟语气,本句有一个由as if 引导的方式状语从句,在as if 引导的从句中谓语动词经常用虚拟语气形式,表示对过去发生的事情的假设,并非事实,因此用了had + 过去分词的形式。本句意思:"重要的是要记住,你幻想这些期望目标时就好像你已经实现了它们那样。"
  
Go over several times the details of these pictures. This will deeply impress them on your memory, and these memory traces will soon start influencing your everyday behavior toward the attainment of the goal.
  While exercising your imagination, you should be alone and completely undisturbed. Some individuals seem to have the ability to tune into their private selves in the midst of the noisiest crowds or company.

  18.tune 原指"调音,调谐"在这里是比喻用法,意为:"调整,调节"
  本句意思是:"有些人能做到在非常喧闹的人群中调节自己,进入自我。
"
  noisy-noisiest(最高级)

   But most of us, especially when the experience is new, require an environment free from outside distraction.
  A life lived without fantasy and daydreaming is a seriously impoverished one. Each of us should put aside a few minutes daily, taking short 10- or 15-minute vacations. Daydreaming is highly beneficial to your physical and mental well-being, and you will find that this modest, inexpensive investment in time will add up to a more creative and imaginative, a more satisfied, and a more self-fulfilled you.

  19.句中 that 引导宾语从句。in time "迟早,最后"
  本句意思是:"白日做梦对你的身心健康大为有益。你会发现这份小小的花费不多的时间投资最终带来的是一个更有创造性,更富有想象力,更心满意足和更踌躇满志的你。它时时使我们更充分地意识到强烈的活力,这当然会大大有助于我们生活的激奋和欢乐。"
  It offers us a fuller sense of being intensely alive from moment to moment, and this, of course, contributes greatly to the excitement and joy of living.

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