山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--英译汉翻译方法介绍 词的翻译(一)

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月08日

英译汉翻译方法介绍 词的翻译(一)

 

方法介绍:
  一、词义的选择(selecting
  英文是含糊的语言(ambiguous language,因此在翻译中遇到最多的问题就是词义的选择。解决办法:根据语境(context)即上下文来确定词义,翻译的最小单位是句子而不是词。
  1.有许多词是一词多义:
  例如:term n. 学期,术语,说法,条款
  stand v. 站立,位于,忍受,承受

  bank n. 银行,河岸 story n. 故事,楼(层)
  2.还有许多词是一词多种词性,而且词义也不同。

  例如:book n. v. 预定
  run v. 跑,n. 一次出生(或一起饲养)的动物
  rest v. 休息 n. 其余(的东西)
  sound n .声音 v. 听起来 a. 合理的,健康的 ad. 彻底地

  二、词类转译(changing
  1. 名词与动词的转换
  It's my pleasure to have you for dinner. n.—v. 很高兴能请你吃饭。
  Tell me what this word means. v. –n. 告诉我这个词的意义。
  2.介词译成动词
  I'm not against your opinion.我不反对你的观点。
  She went to shop for tea .她去商店买茶叶。
  He lay down on the bed in his clothes.他穿着衣服躺在床上。
  3.表语形容词译成动词
  有一些表示心理状态的形容词,一般只能作表语,例如:afraid, glad, sorry, fond, sure, alive, asleep, awake, able/unable, aware/unaware
  I'm afraid he is out. 我担心他出去了。 I'm sure you are right. 我肯定你是对的。

  4.其他词类间的转换
  参看教材P288 例句


  三、增词(adding
  1.有一些英文句子,按照字面翻译,意义不完全,此时必须加词才符合汉语的习惯
  Mother was hanging out the wash. 妈妈把洗好了的衣服挂起来。
  We can room together. 我们可以住一间屋。
  2.实体名词:Air China 中国国际航空公司
  3.抽象名词:tension 要根据具体语境,译成紧张(情况、关系、局势或心情)。

  教材P318 例句
  4.名词复数:dogs 几只狗,一些狗
  5.时态:完成时译成,已经了;进行时译成,正在…,过去时译成,曾经
  6.状语:根据不同的目的、原因、让步等状语,分别译为:为了,由于,虽然

  四、减词(omitting

  一些可有可无的词,意义已经体现于译文中了,可以省略不译
  1.省略主语:One will fail unless he works hard. 不努力就会失败。
  2.省略物主代词:He is keeping his bed. 他正卧床养病。
   I'll try my best. 我尽力而为。
  3.省略连接词:Sunday is the day when I am not busy. 星期天是我不忙的日子。

  五、重复(repeating
  1.为了表示强调而重复
  What we want is to learn,to learn and to learn.
  
Taxes,taxes and more taxes.
  2.为了重复代词所替代的原词

  The country has its advantage. 农村有农村的优势。
  教材P 322 例句
  3.为了表达明确具体,重复英文中省略的词
  We have to learn to analyze and solve problem. 我们必须学会分析问题解决问题。

  Unit 11 练习
  1.动物研究对人类医学的发展做出了重大的贡献。
  Animal research has made great contributions to human medical development.
  
Animal research has contributed a great deal to the development of human medicine.
  2.动物研究是否与人体健康有关,人们持不同态度。

  People have different ideas about whether animal research is relevant to human health.
  3用于实验的动物数量在过去二十年中已大大减少了。

  The number of animals used in experiments has declined greatly over the past 20 years.
  研究的新成果表明,少数实验可以放弃使用动物。

  4.The new research findings show that a few experiments can be done without using animals.
  
The new development in research has shown that a small proportion of tests can be done without using animals.
  5.尽管医学技术越来越先进,但完全停止使用动物做实验仍然很远。

  Although medical techniques are becoming more advanced, stopping testing on animals altogether is a long way away.
  
Although medical technique becomes more and more advanced, stopping testing on animals altogether is a long way away.

  历年考题

  1.The number of animals used in laboratory tests _____decline over the last 20 years. 99.10
  答案:has declined
  考点:本句中over the last 20 years 是明显的表示现在完成时的时间状语。因此本句用现在完成时。
  2.To assume the care for the pets can help bring _____ the humanity in our children and even in us adults. 99.10
  A.about
  
B.in
  
C.out
  
D.up
  答案:C

  考点: 本题主要考查词组bring out 表示使显示,显现;生产,使产生
  3.It is touching to see how a cat or dog – especially a dog –_____itself to family and wants to share in all its goings and comings. 00.4
  A.attributes
  
B.applies
  
C.assigned
  
D.attaches
  答案:D

  考点:本题主要考查词组attach … to 表示附加到,使相关
  4.As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals _____usein experiments may decrease. 00.10
  答案:used
  考点:本题主要考查used 过去分词作定语修饰animals
  5.Some people think that animal research is irrelevant _____ our health and that it can often produce misleading results. 01.4
  A.with
  
B.at
  
C.on
  
D.to
  答案:D

  本题主要考查词组be irrelevant to 表示不相关
  6.汉译英:他的肤色与他是否是个好教授没有关系。
  The color of his skin is irrelevant to whether he is a good professor or not.
  7.As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals used in experiments may decrease, but stopping _____test
on animals altogether is a long way away.
  答案:testing

  本题主要考查词组stop doing sth. 停止做某事。

声明:

(一)由于考试政策等各方面情况的不断调整与变化,本网站所提供的考试信息仅供参考,请以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

(二)网站文章免费转载出于非商业性学习目的,版权归原作者所有。如您对内容、版权等问题存在异议请与澳门新葡8522最新网站联系,我们会及时进行处理解决。

本文地址:/ggk/15/2800.html

XML 地图 | Sitemap 地图