山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B Different Types Of Composers

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月06日

Text B Different Types Of Composers

 

I. New Words
  Title分析:composers :作曲家。

  musician 音乐家
  1.composer n. 作曲家
  2.inspire vt. 1.鼓舞;2.使产生灵感
  3.fruitful a. 有成果的,有收获的
  4.output n. 1.产量;2.输出
  5.theme n. 1.题目,主题;2.主旋律
  6.invariably ad. 不变地
  7.improvise vt. 1.即兴创作;2.临时准备,临时凑成
  8.symphony n. 1.交响曲,交响乐;2.交响乐队,交响音乐会
  9.handle n. 柄,把手
       vt.1.拿,弄;2.运用,操纵;3.经营,管理
  10.constructive a..建设的,建设性的
  11.creative a.创造性的
  12.notebook n.笔记本
  13.preliminary a.预备的;初步的
          n.初试;预赛
  14.painstaking a. 苦干的;费力的
  15.traditionalist n. 传统主义者;因循守旧者
  16.thematic a.1.题目的,主题的;2.主旋律的
  17.conception n. 概念,观念
  18.well-established a.1.固定下来的;2.得到确认的
  19.temper vt. 1.[]使回火,锻炼;2.调合
  20.well(-)tempered 1.脾气好的;2.(键盘乐器)调到平均律的
  21.clavichord n.[]击弦古钢琴
  22.mold(=mould) n.模子;模型
          vt. 用模子做,浇铸
  23.sake n.缘故
  24.completeness n.1.完整,圆满;2.完成,结束
  25.summarize vt./vi.概述,总结
  26.diversified a.多样化的
  27.conventional a.1.惯例的,常规的;2.(艺术等)因袭的
  28.experimental a.实验的;经验的
  29.harmony n. 1.协调,和谐;2.融洽,一致
  30.sonority n.响亮,洪亮
  31.evident a.明显的,明白的
  Phrases and Expressions
  1.in other words 换句话说

  2.in a sense 在某种意义上
  3.at a stretch 连续不断地
  4.to serve as 适合
  5.to belong in 应归入(类别、范畴等)
  6.in advance 1.在前面;2.预先
  7.It goes without saying that 不言而喻,理所当然
  8.for the sake of 为了之好处;为了的目的
  重点词汇精讲
  1.inspire: 鼓舞,使产生灵感
  His qualities of leadership inspired his followers. 他的领袖风范激励着他的追随者。
  The design of the car has inspired many imitations. 这辆轿车的设计引起了众多模仿。
  2.fruitful: 有成果的,有收获的
  派生词:fruit n.水果
  3.theme : 题目,主题
  thematic 主体的
  Does the conference have a central theme this year? 今年大会有中心议题吗?
  4.handle: 柄,把手;运用,操纵;经营,管理
  If you can't handle the job I'll get someone else to do it. 如果你应付不了这个工作,我就让别人来做。
  Who handles the marketing in your company?
  谁在你们公司里负责市场营销?

  词组:
  1.in a sense : 在某种意义上
  She's right, in a sense, because we did agree to wait, but only until June. 她在某种意义上是对的,因为我们确实同意等待,但只等到六月。
  2.at a stretch : 连续不断地,一口气地
  at a stretch stretch v. 伸展 n. 一段连续时间
  There's no way I could work for ten hours at a stretch. 我不可能连续不断地工作10个小时。
  3.to serve as :适合,用作
  In the absence of anything better, the sofa would serve as a bed for a couple of nights.
  在没有更好的东西情况下,这个沙发可以当作床睡几个晚上。

  4.for the sake of : 为了的目的; 为了起见,由于缘故
  The company had decided to close down this department for the sake of economy.
  为了节约,这个公司已经决定关闭这个部门。

  We did it for convenience's sake. 我们是为了方便才这样做的。
  
  II.课文分析
  1.I can see three different types of composers in musical history, each of whom creates music in a somewhat different fashion.
  本句分析:我认为音乐史上可以区分三种不同类型的作曲家,每种作曲家音乐创作手法也各有一定的不同。

  in a … fashion : ... 方式
  The type that has fired public imagination most is that of the spontaneously inspired composer- the Franz Schubert type ,in other words. All composers are inspired, of course, but this type is more spontaneously inspired. Music simply wells out of him. He can't get it down on paper fast enough. You are almost tell this type of composer by his fruitful output. In certain months, Schubert wrote a song a day. Hugo Wolf did the same.
  
2.Music simply wells out of him.
  well v. 喷涌,涌出

  In a sense, men of this kind begin not so much with a musical theme as with a completed composition. They invariably work best in the shorter forms. It is much easier to improvise a song than it is to improvise a symphony. It isn't easy to be inspired in that spontaneous way for long periods at a stretch. Even Schubert was more successful in handling the shorter forms of music. The spontaneously inspired man is only one type of composer, with his own limitations.
  
3.In a sense, men of this kind begin not so much with a musical theme as with a completed composition.
  从一定意义上说,这些作曲家与其说是从某一音乐主题开始创作,不如说他们一开始就有一个完整作品成竹在胸。

  not so much … as : 与其不如
  
He is not so much a scientist as a poet.
  与其说他是个科学家,不如说他是个诗人。

  4.It isn't easy to be inspired in that spontaneous way for long period at a stretch.
  连续很长时间使自己的灵感都处于不自主状态绝非易事。

  at a stretch 一口气地,不休息地
  Beethoven belongs to the second type---the constructive type, one might call it. This type serves as an example of my theory of the creative process in music better than any other, because in this case the composer really does begin with a musical theme. In Beethoven's case there is no doubt about it, for we have the notebooks in which he put the themes down. We can see from his notebooks how he worked over his themes -how he would not let them be until they were as perfect as he could make them. Beethoven was not a spontaneously inspired composer in the Schubert sense at all. He was the type that begins with a theme; makes it a preliminary idea; and upon that composes a musical work, day after day, in painstaking fashion. Most composers since Beethoven's day belong to this second type.
  5.belong to 属于,列入,是的一员

  Beethoven belongs to the second type-the constructive type. 贝多芬属于第二类作曲家
  Most composers since Beethoven's day belong to this second type.
  自Beethoven时代以来,大多数作曲家属于这第二种类型。(创造型)

  That dictionary belongs to me. 那本词典是我的。

  The third type of composer I can only call, for lack of a better name, the traditionalist type. Men like Palestrina and Bach belong in this category. They both are characteristic of the kind of composer who is born in a particular period of musical history, when a certain musical style is abut to reach its fullest development. It is a question at such a time of creating music in a well-known and accepted style and doing it in a way that is better than anyone has done it before you.
  6.belong in 属于(一类), 归入(范畴、环境、类别等)

  Men like Palestrina and Bach belong in this category.
  像 Palestrina Bach 这样的人属于此类范畴(传统型)

  Big dogs should belong in the country, not the city. 大型犬()在农村而不是城市。
  The traditionalist type of composer begins with a pattern rather than with a theme. The creative act with Palestrina is not the thematic conception so much as the personal treatment of a well-established pattern. And even Bach, who composed forty-eight of the most various and inspired themes in his Well Tempered Clavichord, knew in advance the general formal mold that they were to fill. It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditionalist period nowadays.
  
7.The traditionalist type of composer begins with a pattern rather than with a theme.
  传统主义类型的作曲家的创作开始于模式而不是主题。

  8.It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditionalist period nowadays.
  不用说,我们现在已不是生活在传统主义的时期。

  One might add, for the sake of completeness, a fourth type of composer -the pioneer type: men like Gesualdo in the seventeenth century, Moussorgsky and Berlioz in the nineteenth, Debussy and Edgar Varese in the twentieth. It is difficult to summarize the composing methods of so diversified a group. One can safely say that their approach to composition is the opposite of the traditionalist type. They clearly oppose conventional solutions of musical problems. In many ways, their attitude is experimental - they seek to add new harmonies, new sonorities, new formal principles. The pioneer type was the characteristic one at the turn of the seventeenth century and also at the beginning of the twentieth century, but it is much less evident today.
  
9.One might add, for the sake of completeness, a fourth type of composer -the pioneer type:
  为了全面起见,还可以加上第四种类型--先锋型

  for the sake of 为了起见,由于缘故
  10.One can safely say that their approach to composition is the opposite of the traditionalist type.
  可以有把握的说,他们创作的方法与传统主义者的类型相反。

  approach to 通往的方法, approach v. n. 处理,探讨,方法,态度

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