山西自考《英语（二）》课程讲义--Text B Different Types Of Composers
Text B Different Types Of Composers
I. New Words
1.composer n. 作曲家
2.inspire vt. 1．鼓舞；2．使产生灵感
3.fruitful a. 有成果的，有收获的
4.output n. 1.产量；2.输出
5.theme n. 1.题目，主题；2.主旋律
6.invariably ad. 不变地
7.improvise vt. 1.即兴创作；2.临时准备，临时凑成
8.symphony n. 1．交响曲，交响乐；2.交响乐队，交响音乐会
9.handle n. 柄，把手
14.painstaking a. 苦干的；费力的
15.traditionalist n. 传统主义者；因循守旧者
17.conception n. 概念，观念
19.temper vt. 1.[冶]使回火，锻炼；2.调合
29.harmony n. 1.协调，和谐；2.融洽，一致
Phrases and Expressions
1.in other words 换句话说
2.in a sense 在某种意义上
3.at a stretch 连续不断地
4.to serve as 适合
5.to belong in 应归入（类别、范畴等）
6.in advance 1．在前面；2．预先
7.It goes without saying that 不言而喻，理所当然
8.for the sake of 为了…之好处；为了…的目的
His qualities of leadership inspired his followers. 他的领袖风范激励着他的追随者。
The design of the car has inspired many imitations. 这辆轿车的设计引起了众多模仿。
3.theme : 题目，主题
Does the conference have a central theme this year? 今年大会有中心议题吗？
If you can't handle the job I'll get someone else to do it. 如果你应付不了这个工作，我就让别人来做。
Who handles the marketing in your company?
1.in a sense : 在某种意义上
She's right, in a sense, because we did agree to wait, but only until June. 她在某种意义上是对的，因为我们确实同意等待，但只等到六月。
2.at a stretch : 连续不断地，一口气地
at a stretch stretch v. 伸展 n. 一段连续时间
There's no way I could work for ten hours at a stretch. 我不可能连续不断地工作10个小时。
3.to serve as :适合，用作
In the absence of anything better, the sofa would serve as a bed for a couple of nights.
4.for the sake of : 为了… 的目的； 为了 … 起见，由于 … 缘故
The company had decided to close down this department for the sake of economy.
We did it for convenience's sake. 我们是为了方便才这样做的。
1.I can see three different types of composers in musical history, each of whom creates music in a somewhat different fashion.
in a … fashion : 用... 方式
The type that has fired public imagination most is that of the spontaneously inspired composer- the Franz Schubert type ,in other words. All composers are inspired, of course, but this type is more spontaneously inspired. Music simply wells out of him. He can't get it down on paper fast enough. You are almost tell this type of composer by his fruitful output. In certain months, Schubert wrote a song a day. Hugo Wolf did the same.
2.Music simply wells out of him.
well v. 喷涌，涌出
In a sense, men of this kind begin not so much with a musical theme as with a completed composition. They invariably work best in the shorter forms. It is much easier to improvise a song than it is to improvise a symphony. It isn't easy to be inspired in that spontaneous way for long periods at a stretch. Even Schubert was more successful in handling the shorter forms of music. The spontaneously inspired man is only one type of composer, with his own limitations.
3.In a sense, men of this kind begin not so much with a musical theme as with a completed composition.
not so much … as : 与其… 不如…
He is not so much a scientist as a poet.
4.It isn't easy to be inspired in that spontaneous way for long period at a stretch.
at a stretch 一口气地，不休息地
Beethoven belongs to the second type---the constructive type, one might call it. This type serves as an example of my theory of the creative process in music better than any other, because in this case the composer really does begin with a musical theme. In Beethoven's case there is no doubt about it, for we have the notebooks in which he put the themes down. We can see from his notebooks how he worked over his themes -how he would not let them be until they were as perfect as he could make them. Beethoven was not a spontaneously inspired composer in the Schubert sense at all. He was the type that begins with a theme; makes it a preliminary idea; and upon that composes a musical work, day after day, in painstaking fashion. Most composers since Beethoven's day belong to this second type.
5.belong to 属于，列入，是 … 的一员
Beethoven belongs to the second type-the constructive type. 贝多芬属于第二类作曲家
Most composers since Beethoven's day belong to this second type.
That dictionary belongs to me. 那本词典是我的。
The third type of composer I can only call, for lack of a better name, the traditionalist type. Men like Palestrina and Bach belong in this category. They both are characteristic of the kind of composer who is born in a particular period of musical history, when a certain musical style is abut to reach its fullest development. It is a question at such a time of creating music in a well-known and accepted style and doing it in a way that is better than anyone has done it before you.
6.belong in 属于 … （一类）， 归入 …（范畴、环境、类别等）
Men like Palestrina and Bach belong in this category.
像 Palestrina 和 Bach 这样的人属于此类范畴（传统型）
Big dogs should belong in the country, not the city. 大型犬(养)在农村而不是城市。
The traditionalist type of composer begins with a pattern rather than with a theme. The creative act with Palestrina is not the thematic conception so much as the personal treatment of a well-established pattern. And even Bach, who composed forty-eight of the most various and inspired themes in his Well Tempered Clavichord, knew in advance the general formal mold that they were to fill. It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditionalist period nowadays.
7.The traditionalist type of composer begins with a pattern rather than with a theme.
8.It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditionalist period nowadays.
One might add, for the sake of completeness, a fourth type of composer -the pioneer type: men like Gesualdo in the seventeenth century, Moussorgsky and Berlioz in the nineteenth, Debussy and Edgar Varese in the twentieth. It is difficult to summarize the composing methods of so diversified a group. One can safely say that their approach to composition is the opposite of the traditionalist type. They clearly oppose conventional solutions of musical problems. In many ways, their attitude is experimental - they seek to add new harmonies, new sonorities, new formal principles. The pioneer type was the characteristic one at the turn of the seventeenth century and also at the beginning of the twentieth century, but it is much less evident today.
9.One might add, for the sake of completeness, a fourth type of composer -the pioneer type:
for the sake of 为了 … 起见，由于 … 缘故
10.One can safely say that their approach to composition is the opposite of the traditionalist type.
approach to 通往 … 的方法， approach v. n. 处理，探讨，方法，态度