山西自考《英语（二）》课程讲义--Text B Return of The Chain Gang
Text B Return of The Chain Gang
1.gang n. 1.一队，一族；2.（囚犯，歹徒等）一群，一帮
2.eyewitness n. 目击者；见证人
3.unison n. 一致；协调
4.interstate a. [主美]州际的
5.BBC(=British Broadcasting Corporation) 英国广播公司
6.correspondent n. 1.对应物；2.新闻通讯员，记者，通信者
7.shackle n. 1.[常pl.]镣铐；2.[pl.]束缚，枷锁
8.ditch n. 沟，沟渠
9.weed n. 1.杂草，野草；2.水生植物
10.deny vt. 1.否定，否认；2.拒绝接受，拒绝给予
11.re-introduction n. 重新采用，重新引入
12.gap n. 裂口，裂缝
13.toilet n. 盥洗室；厕所
14.circus n. 1.马戏团，杂技团；2.马戏场，杂技场
15.degrade vt. 1.降级，贬低；2.堕落；3.退化
16.plantation n. 1.种植园，大农场；2.植树造林
17.spokesman ([复] spokesmen) n. 发言人；代言人
18.racist n. 种族主义者
19.racial a. 种族的
20.inhumane a. 不人道的，残忍的
21.ineffective a. 无效的；不起作用的
22.civil a. 1.国民的；民用的；2.国内的，民间的
23.union n. 1.工会，协会；2.结合，联合
24.liberty n. 1.自由，自由权；2.冒昧，失礼；
25.punishment n. 1.处罚，罚，刑罚；2.折磨，损害
26.disaffection n. 不满
27.argument n. 1.争论，辩论；2.论据，理由
Phrases and Expressions
1.to watch over 看守，照管，监视
2.in unison 完全一致地
3.to call up 1.打电话；2.使想起，使忆起
Clare Bolderson 克莱尔·博尔德森
Don Claxton 唐·克莱克斯顿
Alvin Bronstein 阿尔文·布朗斯坦
1.deny : 否认，否定
Neil denies breaking the window, but I'm sure he did. 内尔否认打破了窗户，但我肯定是他干的。
2.degrade : v. 降级，贬低
派生词：grade n. 等级，级别
de- 是前缀表示 "reduce, remove, down, showing an opposite"的意思。
相关词汇构词法： code - decode ; value - devalue ; form - deform ; merit - demerit;
反义词：effective a. 有效的；
Eyewitnesses say it was a scene straight out of a black and white movie from the 1950s. As the sun rose over the fields of Huntsville, Alabama, in the American South, the convicts got down from the trucks that had brought them there. Watched over by guards with guns,they raised their legs in unison and made their way to the edge of the highway, Interstate 65. The BBC's Washington correspondent Clare Bolderson was there and she sent this report:
1.chain gang 用铁链拴在一起劳动的囚犯队
2.Eyewitnesses say it was a scene straight out of a black and white movie from the 1950s.
3.Watched over by guards with guns, they raised their legs in unison and made their way to the edge of the highway, Interstate 65. 他们在荷枪实弹的警卫的看守下，步伐一致地迈动双腿，向着65号州际公路路边走去。
watched over 为过去分词短语作伴随状语。
make one's way to 去往，朝…走去
the highway,interstate 65 (美国)65号州际公路
"They wore white uniforms with the words 'Chain Gang' on their backs and,in groups of five, were shackled together in leg irons joined by an eight-foot chain. The prisoners will work for up to 90 days on the gang: they'll clear ditches of weeds and mend fences along Alabama's main roads. While they are working on the sang, they'll also live in some of the harshest prison conditions in the United States. There'll be no televisions or phone calls; many other day-to-day privileges will be denied."
The authorities in Alabama say there is a lot of support for the re-introduction of chain gangs in the State after a gap of 30 years (the last gangs were abolished in Georgia in the early 1960s). Many people believe it is an effective may to get criminals to pay back their debt to society.
4.Many people believe it is an effective way to get criminal to pay back their debt to society.
it是形式宾语，不定式to get criminal to pay back their debt to society为实际宾语
The prisoners stay shackled when they use toilets.They reacted sharply to the treatment they are given:
5.They reacted sharply to the treatment they are given. 他们强烈反抗他们所受到的待遇。
they are given 为定语从句，修饰 the treatment
Prisoner one : "This is like a circus. A zoo. All chained here to a zoo.We're all animals now."
6.All chained here to a zoo.
此句为省略句，谓语动词are 被省略, 应为all are chained here to a zoo.意为：所有的人都被锁链拴住，这里成了动物园。
Prisoner two: "It's degrading. It's embarrassing."
Prisoner three: "In chains. It's slavery!"
Six out of every ten prisoners in chains are black, which is why the chain gangs call up images of slavery in centuries gone by, when the black people were brought from Africa in leg irons and made to work in plantations owned by white men. Not surprisingly, although three-quarters of the white population of Alabama supports chain gangs, only a small number of black people do. Don Claxton, spokesman for the State Government of Alabama, insists that the system is not racist:
7.Six out of every ten prisoners in chains are black, which is why the chain gangs call up images of slavery in centuries gone by, when black people were brought from Africa in leg irons and made to work in plantations owned by white men.
gone by过去分词短语，修饰 centuries.
句中并列谓语是were brought,(were) made to work是主语补语，因此不可以省略不动式符号to
"This isn't something that's done for racial reasons, for political reasons. This is something that's going to help save the people of Alabama tax money because they don't have to pay as many officers to work on the highways. And it's going go help clean up our highways and it's going to help clean up the State."
However, the re-introduction of these measures has caused a great deal of strong disagreement. Human rights organizations say that putting prisoners in chains is not only inhumane but also ineffective. Alvin Bronstein, member of the Civil Liberties Union, says that study after study has shown that you cannot prevent people from committing crimes by punishment or the threat of punishment: "What they will do is make prisoners more angry, more hostile, so that when they get out of prison, they will increase the level of their criminal behaviour."
8."What they will do is make prisoners more angry, more hostile, so that when they get out of prison, they will increase the level of their criminal behaviour."
so that 引导结果状语从句
Civil liberties groups say that chaining people together doesn't solve the causes of crime,such as poverty or disaffection within society. What it does is punish prisoners for the ills of society. They say the practice takes the United States back so the Middle Age, and that it is a shame to American society. But that's not an argument likely to win favour among many people in the Deep South of the United States. Alabama's experiment is to be widened to include more prisoners, and other States, such as Arkansas and Arizona, will very probably introduce their own chain gang schemes.
9.What it does is punish prisoners for the ills of society.
10. But that's not an argument likely to win favour among many people in the Deep South of the United States.
win favour 意为“赢得赞同”
be not likely to 不可能
There be “存在”句型
1.to be 作谓语动词单复数与后面的主语一致
例如：There are a lot of people in the room.
There is one person/ nobody in the room.
例如：There is no doubt about his guilt.
There can be very little doubt about his guilt.
例如：There are estimated to be more than …
There is going to …
例如：There existed a conflict.
5.除be之外， 谓语动词还可以用 occur,come,live stand, lie
以及复合结构 happen to be，seem to be, be likely to be, be bound to be。例句参见书中P.91注释1
（1）There are estimated to be more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants working in Britain.
（2）Of these 20,000, just under 2,000 are being exploited and abused by their employers.
（3）The sad condition of women working as domestics around the world received much media attention earlier this year in several highly publicized cases.
（4）A Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder, despite protests form various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established.
（5）She used to work for a very low wage at a tea factory in Sri Lanka.
（6）Because she found it difficult to feed her four children, she accepted a job working as a domestic in London.
（7）So if they do complain, they risk being deported.
（8）This included increasing the minimum age of employees to 18, getting employees to read and understand an advice leaflet, getting employers to agree to provide adequate maintenance and conditions, and to put in writing the main terms and conditions of the job (of which the employees should see a copy).
（9）For the main problem facing overseas maids and domestics who try to complain about cruel living and working conditions is that they do not have independent immigrant status and so cannot change employer.
（10）It is, they say, the right to change employers which distinguishes employment from slavery.
The government department that deals with relevant affairs does not keep statistics.
It was because she found it difficult to feed her family that she accepted a job working as a domestic.
She was hired by a Saudi diplomat directly from the Philippines to work in London.
The conditions of working as domestics have received media attention.
The employers always threatened to send us back to our countries.
（1）When they get out of prison, they ______ (increase) the level of their criminal behavior.
考点：时间状语从句中主句用将来时，从句用一般现在时表示将来。从句谓语动词是get 一般现在时，所以从句用will increase. (主将从现)
（2）At the end of 1994 the British Government introduced new measures to help ______ domestic workers from abuse by their employers.
考点是：protect … from 保护… 免受 …
（3）_____ their differences, they fell passionately in love with each other.
A. As for
B. Owing to