山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Slavery On Our Doorstep

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月06日

Text A Slavery On Our Doorstep

 

I.课文内容简介
  这篇文章介绍了在英国工作的大约两万多名海外家仆,这些家仆中有1/10 正遭受雇主的各种各样的虐待和奴役。尽管英国政府采取了新的措施,这些佣人的生活和工作条件并没有发生太大的变化。
  这种状况得到了媒体的普遍关注。

  解决问题的关键办法也许在于允许家佣们自由地选择顾主。
  段落大意:
  Paras.1-2 In Britain, about 10% of the domestic servants are being exploited and abused in various forms.
  
Paras.3-8 The sad condition of domestics received media attention.
  
Para.9 The key to the problem lies in allowing domestic workers the freedom to change employers.
  

  II.New Words
  1.slavery n. 奴隶制度,奴役

  2.domestic a./n.家庭的,家务的,本国的/家仆
  3.Briton n. 大不列颠人;英国人
  4.statistics n.统计数字,统计资料
  5.diplomat n.外交家;外交官
  6.abroad ad. 到国外;在国外
  7.exploit vt. 开发,开采;利用
  8.abuse vt./n. 滥用,虐待
  9.campaign n./vi./vt.战役,运动
  10.sexually ad.在性方面
  11.passport n.护照
  12.Filipino n./a.菲律宾人;菲律宾的
  13.maid n. 少女,侍女,女仆
  14.execute vt. 实行,执行,完成
  15.convict vt./n.证明有罪;宣判
  16.despite prep. 尽管,任凭
  17.guilt n. 有罪,内疚
  18.deserving a. 应得的,值得的
  19.Saudi n. 沙特阿拉伯人, 沙特阿拉伯的
  20.breadwinner n. 养家糊口的人
  21.shelf n. 架子
  22.minimum n./a. 最小量;最小的
  23.employee n. 雇员,雇工
  24.leaflet n. 小叶,嫩叶;传单,活页
  25.incidence a./n.影响程度,影响范围
  26.immigrant n.a.(从国外)移民的,侨民的;侨民, 移民
  27.status n. 情形,状况;地位,身份
  28.kingdom n. 王国,领域
  29.concession n. 让步;特许权
  30.immigration n. 移居;外来的移民
  31.foreigner n.外国人
  32.deport vt.驱逐出境
  Phrases and Expressions
  1.to bring over 带来;使转变

  2.to convict of 证明有罪
  3.be deserving of 值得,应得
  4.be supposed to 应该
  5.to distinguish … from ...区别开
  Porper Name
  Singapore   1.新加坡岛; 2.新加坡; 3.新加坡市

  Lydia      莉迪亚·加西亚(人名)
  The Philippines 1.菲律宾; 2.菲律宾群岛
  Kumari    库马里(人名)
  Sri Lanka  斯里兰卡
  United Kingdom  联合王国
  词汇精讲:
  slave 奴隶 slavery  奴隶制
  discover   discovery n. 发现
  domestic  a. 家庭的;国内的,本国的;n. 家仆
  反义词:abroad
  GDP ( = gross domestic product ) 国内生产总值

  Many women feel they cannot apply for the top jobs because of domestic commitments.
  很多妇女感觉她们因为家庭责任而不能申请高级工作。

  The president's new foreign policy is heavily influenced by domestic factors.
  总统的对外政策在很大程度上受到了国内因素的影响。

  家仆 domestic servant maid (女佣),female girl
  Briton 大不列颠人;英国人

  Britain 英国,不列颠
  英伦三岛:England ScotlandWelsh, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国
  Briton 英国人;
the British; Englishman
  oversea 海外的,在海外

  exploit : vt. 开发,开采;利用,剥削 n. exploitation
  He exploited his authority for personal gratification. 他利用职权来满足个人的私欲。

  A mine is exploited for its minerals. 开发矿山是为了采矿。
  The company exploited its workers with long hours and low pay.
  该公司利用长工时、低工资的方法来剥削工人。

  Resources should be properly exploited. 开发资源要适度。
  abuse v./ n 虐待,滥用
  
Drug and alcohol abuse contributed to Brian's early death.
  滥用毒品和酗酒导致了布莱恩的早逝。

  Be physically abused 肉体受到虐待
  the Iraqi prisoner abuse
  
abuse one's power
  campaign : n.战役,运动;v.参加运动

  The Huai-Hai Campaign was essential to the victory of the War of Liberation.
  淮海战役对解放战争的胜利至关重要。

  We are launching a campaign against waste. 我们正发起一场反浪费活动。
  He announced that he would campaign for the senate. 他宣布他将参加议员竞选。
  sex 性别;visa 签证
  execute vt. 处死,执行,实行 executive a. 执行的,执政的
  The criminal was executed after the trial. 审判后罪犯被处死。
  All orders were immediately executed.所有的命令将尽早执行。
  CEO = Chief Executive Officer 首席执行官
  EMBA= Executive Master of Business Administration 高级管理人员工商管理硕士
  convict: vt. 证明有罪,宣判有罪;n. 罪犯
  He was convicted of smuggling. 他被判犯有走私罪。
  相关词汇:accuse sb. of … 指控某人有罪;
  charge sb of... 指控某人有罪
  despite : prep. 尽管,任凭
  Despite the fact that there was almost no hope of finding the missing boy , the search party still went on looking. 尽管找到失踪男孩几乎无望,搜寻的人群仍然在继续寻找。

  Despite the shortage of raw materials, industrial output has increased by ten percent. 尽管原材料短缺,工业产量仍增长百分之十。
  Despite what he said, I didn't believe the news. 不论她如何说,我也不相信这个消息。
  相关词汇:in spite of 尽管,任凭
  deserving : a. 应得,值得
  派生词:deserve v. 应得,值得(宾语可用名词、动名词、或不定式)
  用法:
be deserving of ; deserve + n./ doing / to do sth.
  His efforts are certainly deserving of praise. 他的努力当然值得表扬。

  The question deserves consideration. 这个问题值得考虑。
  He deserves to lose because he cheated. 他该输,因为他作弊。
  The project deserves further investigation. 这个项目值得进一步调查。
  Saudi Arabia 沙特阿拉伯
  breadwinner 同义词:
provider
  shelf 复数:变fi+ves 类似地,
life, leaf
  minimum: a./ n.最小量;最低限制

  派生词:minimize v. 使最小化
  反义词:maximum n. 最大量,最大限制(手写板)

  用法: Wage increases are being kept to a minimum in many companies because of the depression.
  由于经济不景气,很多公司的工资增长都被限制在最小幅度。

  We need a minimum of ten people to play this game. 玩这个游戏我们至少需要10个人。
  We have reduced the costs to the minimum. 我们已将费用减至最低额。
  employee 雇员 employer 雇主
  后缀 -let 表示,如: leaflet droplet
  incidence 发生率

  status n. 1.情况,状况2.地位,身份 同义词:situation
  the status of world affairs 世界形势

  status as a scholar 学者身份
  immigrant status 移民身份
  status of women in society 妇女的社会地位
  the political situation 政治面貌
  the domestic situation 国内形式
  the international situation 国际形式
  to kick out  驱逐出境
  词组:
  1.to bring over: 带来; 使转变
  You might bring your girlfriend over tomorrow evening. 明天晚上你不妨把你的女朋友带来。
  What she said brought me over to her opinion. 她的话使我转而同意她的意见。
  Can this small boat bring them over to this side of the river ?
  这条小船能把他们运到河的那边吗?

  相关词汇:bring up 养育,抚育; bring about 引起,带来,产生
  2.be deserving of 值得,应得
  He is deserving of the praise for his work.鉴于他的工作应受到这表扬。
  The robber is deserving of capital punishment. 这个强盗应处极刑。
  3.be supposed to : 应该, 理应
  You are not supposed to smoke in here. 你不应在这里吸烟。
  Employees are supposed to be here at eight every day. 雇员们应该每天8点钟到这里。

  III.课文精讲
  第一部分:
  paras.12
  
There are estimated to be more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants working in Britain (the exact figure is not known because the Home Office, the Government department that deals with this, does not keep statistics). Usually, they have been brought over by foreign businessmen, diplomats or Britons returning from abroad. Of these 20,000, just under 2,000 are being exploited and abused by their employers, according to a London-based campaigning group which helps overseas servants working in Britain.
  1.本句为there be 句型的变体,working in Britain 为现在分词短语作定语,修饰servants.译文: 据统计,在英国工作的外籍家庭佣人有两万多人

  2.括号里内容:(由于处理该项事务的政府部门-内政部-没有做过统计,精确数字不得而知)
  原因状语从句中主语内政部有一个同位语。
  3.句中"are being exploited and abused"为现在进行时被动语态,表示正在被剥削和凌辱
  "under"的意思是低于,不到

  "- based"意为设(驻)在的,以为基础的,以为主要手段的
  例如: shore-based aircraft 岸基飞机
  the agency's Paris-based press officer 该机构驻巴黎的新闻发布官。
  本句意思:根据设在伦敦的帮助在伦敦工作的外籍家庭佣人的政治组织说:在两万多外籍家庭佣人中几乎有2000人正遭受雇主的剥削和虐待。
  
The abuse can take several forms. Often the domestics are not allowed to go out, and they do not receive any payment. They can be physically, sexually and psychologically abused. And they can have their passports removed, making leaving or "escaping" virtually impossible.
  4."have their passports removed" have+宾语+过去分词的结构。

"removed"
是过去分词作宾补,表示被动,意为使得护照被拿走
  例如: have my wallet stolen have the radio repaired
  making … impossible 为现在分词短语作结果状语。

  本句意思:他们在身体上、性和心理上遭受凌辱。他们还会被收去护照,使得出走或逃跑根本不可能。
  第二部分:
  paras. 38
  
The sad condition of women working as domestics around the world received much media attention earlier this year in several highly publicised cases. In one of them, a Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder, despite protests from various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established. Groups like Anti-Slavery International say other, less dramatic, cases are equally deserving of attention, such as that of Lydia Garcia, a Filipino maid working in London:
  5.The sad condition of women working as domestics around the world 在句中作主语,谓语是received 受到, "in several highly publicized cases"的意思是在几个被高度曝光的案例中

  本句意思:今年年初,几个透明度颇高的案例中有关世界各地的家庭女佣的悲惨状况受到新闻媒体的关注。
  "I was hired by a Saudi diplomat directly from the Philippines to work in London in 1989. I was supposed to be paid 120 but I never received that amount. They always threatened that they would send me back to my country."
  6.句中"being convicted of murder"为动名词被动式作介词 "after"的宾语,表示被判为谋杀罪"that"引导protests 的同位语从句,表示抗议的内容。本句意思:其中一个案例是讲一位菲律宾女佣因被指控犯有谋杀罪在新加坡被处死,尽管有来自各地的抗议认为她的罪名不足以成立。

  Para.5
  
Then there is the case of Kumari from Sri Lanka. The main breadwinner in her family, she used to work for a very low wage at a tea factory in Sri Lanka. Because she found it difficult to feed her four children, she accepted a job working as a domestic in London. She says she felt like a prisoner at the London house where she worked.
  7.The main breadwinner in her family, she used to work for a very low wage at a tea factory in Sri Lanka. She 是同位语 used to do sth. 过去经常的动作

  "No days off - ever, no breaks at all, no proper food. I didn't have my own room; I slept on a shelf with a space of only three feet above me. I wasn't allowed to talk to anybody. I wasn't even allowed to open the window. My employers always threatened to report me to the Home Office or the police.
  
Para.7
  
At the end of 1994 the British Government introduced new measures to help protect domestic workers from abuse by their employers. This included increasing the minimum age of employees to 18, getting employees to read and understand an advice leaflet, getting employers to agree to provide adequate maintenance and conditions, and to put in writing the main terms and conditions of the job (of which the employees should see a copy).
  8.include后要接动名词作宾语。 increasing, getting, getting 均为动名词短语,included的宾语,表示新措施包括的三项内容。

  "to agree" "to put" 并列作第二个getting的宾补。
  "to put in writing the main terms and conditions…的正常语序为to put the main terms and conditions …
  in writing , 因为作宾补的介词短语较短,而宾语较长,故把宾补提前。

  本句意思:措施包括把雇工的最小年龄提高到18岁,使受雇者能阅读并理解通告单,使雇主同意提供适当的生活费用和条件,并写出工作条件和主要的工作条款(受雇者应有此种副本)。
  Para.8
  
However, many people doubt whether this will successfully reduce the incidence of abuse. For the main problem facing overseas maids and domestics who try to complain about cruel living and working conditions is that they do not have independent immigrant status and so cannot change employer. (They are allowed in the United Kingdom under a special concession in the immigration rules which allow foreigners to bring domestic staff with them.) So if they do complain, they risk being deported.
  该句的主要结构为 "For …problem … is that …." "facing"为现在分词作定语修饰problem"who"引导定语从句修饰
"maids and domestics".
  本句意思是:因为那些企图抗议恶劣生活和工作条件的外籍女佣和家仆所面临的主要问题是他们没有独立的移民身份,因此不能更换雇主。

  第三部分
  Para.9
  
Allowing domestic workers the freedom to seek the same type of work but with a different employer, if they so choose, is what groups like Anti-Slavery International are campaigning the Government for. It is, they say, the right to change employers which distinguishes employment from slavery.
  10.allowing...动名词短语作主语

  if they so choose... 条件状语从句
  what 引导表语从句,what groups … are campaigning the Government for.
  
We are campaigning the Government for human rights.
  
This key is what I am looking for.
  11."it is …. Which …"为强调句,强调主语。 其中"they say" 为插入语

  to distinguish … from 区分开

  本句意思:他们说,正是有权改变雇主的这一做法区分了雇佣制和奴隶制

  附:重点句
  1.There are estimated to be more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants working in Britain (the exact figure is not known because the Home Office, the Government department that deals with this, does not keep statistics). There be "存在"的句型。
  2.Of these 20,000, just under 2,000 are being exploited and abused by their employers, according to a London-based campaigning group which helps overseas servants working in Britain.
  
3.And they can have their passports removed, making leaving or "escaping"virtually impossible.
  
4.The sad condition of women working as domestics around the world received much media attention earlier this year in several highly publicised cases.
  
5.In one of them, a Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder, despite protests from various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established.
  Guilt n. 有罪 反义词:
innocence
  Guilty adj. 有罪的 反义词
innocent
  
6.Then there is the case of Kumari from Sri Lanka. The main breadwinner in her family, she used to work for a very low wage at a tea factory in Sri Lanka.
  7.This included increasing the minimum age of employees to 18, getting employees to read and understand an advice leaflet, getting employers to agree to provide adequate maintenance and conditions, and to put in writing the main terms and conditions of the job (of which the employees should see a copy).注意三个并列的动名词短语。

  8.For the main problem facing overseas maids and domestics who try to complain about cruel living and working conditions is that they do not have independent immigrant status and so cannot change employer.
  9.It is, they say, the right to change employers which distinguishes employment from slavery.

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